Two Myths of Nativism: Mutually Exclusive Relationships, and Eucalyptus Allelopathy

We re-publish with permission (and added emphasis) an article from  MillionTrees.me, a website that fights the unnecessary felling of trees in the Bay Area. The article, a report from someone who attended the February 2018 meeting of the California Native Plant Society (CNPS), is important for two reasons:
Read more of this post

Advertisements

The Myth that Nothing Grows Under Eucalyptus

Eucalyptus haters are fond of saying “Nothing grows under eucalyptus.” This refers to “allelopathy” of eucalyptus trees – a defense mechanism in some plants that uses chemical means to prevent other plants growing in the same area. This is empirically a myth, as laid out in this article: Eucalyptus Myths.

When confronted with the tangles of diverse vegetation thriving in the eucalyptus forests on Mt Davidson and Mt Sutro, they amend it to “No native plant grows under eucalyptus” – assuming that native plants as a class have particular characteristics that make them susceptible.  Recent scientific research shows that’s a myth too

 

ABSTRACT: EVALUATING THE MYTH OF ALLELOPATHY IN CALIFORNIA EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS PLANTATIONS (NELSON, RITTER, YOST)

Here’s the abstract from a paper presented at recent conference of the California Native Plant Society (Feb 2018):

“14.05 Evaluating the myth of allelopathy in California Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae) plantations
Kristen Nelson, Matt Ritter, Jenn Yost, California Poly, San Luis Obispo, CA

It is widely accepted that allelopathy is not only significant, but more or less singular, in the inhibition of understory vegetation in California Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae) plantations. However, there is no published documentation of allelopathy by blue gums against California native species despite continuous references in the literature since the late 1960’s. Previous studies on allelopathy have been inconclusive and criticized for their lack of meaningful, ecologically relevant controls, test species, and test conditions.

We tested the effect of blue gum soil, volatile leaf extracts, and water-soluble leaf extracts on germination and early seedling growth of five California native species that are common components of native habitats typically found adjacent to blue gum plantations. We conducted greenhouse and laboratory experiments to compare the effect of blue gum extracts to ecologically-relevant controls including water, a non allelopathic native plant control (Quercus agrifolia [Fagaceae]), and a native allelopathic plant control (Salvia apiana [Lamiaceae]).

In these experiments, we found that germination and seedling growth of the species tested were not inhibited by chemical extracts of blue gum foliage, either at naturally-occurring or artificially concentrated levels. These results are significant because they are the first to test an allelopathic effect of blue gums against ecologically-relevant species. These results may have significant implications for management and restoration of land historically occupied by blue gum.”

In other words – they looked for allelopathy and they didn’t find it.

The picture below, incidentally, shows Pacific Reed Grass – a native plant – growing under eucalyptus. It’s often found growing under eucalyptus because the water precipitated from the fog provides its preferred growing conditions.

 

 

Register for Town Hall Meeting about Montara’s Chainsawed Trees

We posted a few days ago about the planned meeting regarding the chainsawed trees of Rancho Corral de Tierra at Montara. Here are the details of the public notice, and a link to RSVP.

 

“Rancho Corral de Tierra Public Meeting | November 12, 2017

“Please join National Park Service staff and Congresswoman Jackie Speier for a public meeting to discuss Rancho Corral de Tierra. Park staff will discuss grassland restoration efforts, current management, and future park planning efforts. Grassland restoration efforts include removing invasive vegetation, such as grasses and trees, and revegetating with native plant communities.

Meeting Details
Sunday, November 12, 2017
2:00 pm – 3:30 pm
Farallone View Elementary School,
1100 Le Conte Ave., Montara, CA
RSVP requested: Please register HERE.

 

What Happened at the Montara Walk with Jacquie Speier – Trees at Rancho Corral De Tierra

Recently, we announced the news that a public walk had been planned for Oct 30, 2017 to discuss the sudden and deplorable destruction of trees at Montara’s Rancho Corral de Tierra. (We reported on that here: National Park Trees meet Chainsaws in Montara.) However, when supporters tried to sign up, they found the walk had filled up within days, maybe hours, of the announcement. Fortunately, one person did manage to go, and has sent us this report.

THEY’RE CUTTING DOWN TREES BECAUSE THEY HAVE THE MONEY – FOR NOW

Emotions ran high during a Monday mid-afternoon public hike led by a large contingent of National Park Service officials to quell community uproar over the sudden removal of healthy Monterey cypress and pines along popular trails at Rancho Corral de Tierra.

Congresswoman Jackie Speier kicked off the trailhead gathering of 30 or so nearby Montara and Moss Beach residents with sharp criticism of the Park Service’s “woefully failed” communications effort about its grasslands restoration program.

People questioned whether it was truly necessary to cut down 25 isolated trees – some 100 years old and community favorites – to preserve a rare flower called Hickman’s potentilla by replanting native grasses and wildflowers. They also asked why the Park Service did not publicly identify the trees slated for destruction or disclose its use of the herbicide Glyphosate, better known by the brand name RoundUp. California may soon require cancer warnings on Glyphosate products. [The chemical is considered “probably carcinogenic” by the World Health Organization, and an insider from the Environmental Protection Agency said, “It is essential certain that glyphosate causes cancer.”]

While the Park Service conceded it could have done a better job of communicating plans, they offered tortured answers to critical questions about the project.

Officials said it would be too difficult to identify the trees to be felled because markings could not be placed so they are visible at every angle from various directions people walk. They said the herbicide spraying schedule is unpredictable due to weather and, therefore, does not allow for advance notification or signs but that trails are closed off by staff standing guard during the spraying.

The Park Service said it contracts with outside crews for tree-cutting that must be completed under a $200,000 grant that only funds the project for three years.

It’s not clear whether the Park Service conducted an environmental analysis despite claiming they are required by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service to protect the potentilla at Rancho under the Endangered Species Act. If that is their rationale they are as matter of law required to conduct a public process before making significant changes that affect the landscape and recreation.

Congresswoman Speier announced she would hold a joint town hall with the GGNRA deputy superintendent to seek resolutions working together with the community. The town hall will be November 12 in Montara in the evening.

It’s important that folks try to attend because the Park Service has only agreed to stop killing trees until that meeting takes place. We’ll post more information when the meeting time and location are set. Stay tuned.

Tree stumps of chainsawed trees in Rancho Corral De Tierra, Montara, CA, USA

Stumps and Sawdust Where there were Beloved Trees

Montara Walk with Jackie Speier – The Why of the Chainsawed Trees

Owing to public outcry, the tree cutting in Montara has been paused. Now a walk has been announced for October 30, 2017, 2:00 PM – 4:00 PM, in Montara,  presumably for explanations about why the trees were cut and what is planned for the future.

HICKMAN’S POTENTILLA

Hickman’s Potentilla – cc by 2.0 – John Game – wikimedia

We understand that the “restoration” project is about a tiny yellow flower called Hickman’s Cinquefoil or Hickman’s Potentilla.  The picture here is from a Wikipedia article about it, and is used under a Creative Commons license.) It’s very rare.

It’s been seen in Monterey, growing in a quarter-acre patch of grassland in a pine forest. They tried planting more in Monterey, but a combination of predators, competition from grasses, and low reproduction defeated this effort.

Montara has the largest known population, and maybe half of it is in Rancho Corral de Tierra.  Here’s a 2009 USFWS report on the plant: UFWS report on Hickmans Potentilla 2009

The key question: Will chopping down the trees actually help this plant? There’s some speculation that maybe the trees are shading out the flowers. But the real issue for the Potentilla seems to be a combination of being over-run by grasses, eaten by gophers, deer, and slugs, and not reproducing vigorously.

The trees have been there a long time, and are part of the environment for the Potentilla already. It’s quite possible that the drastic change from cutting down the trees will just make everything worse; the effects of their removal is quite unpredictable when you need to address it down at the level of grasses, wind, erosion, and water movement in small patches of land.  The best results are more likely to come, not from disturbing the environment, but from clipping the grass around the plants, and figuring out how to protect them from predators.

DETAILS OF THE WALK

Time and Place: October 30, 20172:00 PM – 4:00 PM, Montara

Here are the details that were sent to us. The invitation came from C. Fitzgerald at the Parks Conservancy:

Golden Gate National Recreation Area
Rancho Corral de Tierra Grassland Restoration

Public Meeting and Walk

Please join National Park Service staff and Congresswoman Jackie Speier for a public meeting and walk at Rancho Corral de Tierra to discuss grassland restoration efforts and recovery actions for the Federally endangered Hickman’s potentilla. Project staff will discuss the project goals, review park planning processes and discuss future restoration plans. Park restoration efforts include removing invasive vegetation, such as grasses and trees, and revegetating with native plant communities.

RSVP REQUIRED | Please RSVP here so that we can accommodate all participants. A Rancho meeting location will be sent to all registered attendees at least 5 days prior to the event.
MEETING & WALK | This gathering will begin with a 30 minute meeting/talk at the trailhead which will be followed by a walk to view the project area for further discussion. The walk terrain is moderately strenuous.
PARKING | Parking is limited. Carpooling or walking is highly encouraged.
ATTIRE | Please wear comfortable walking shoes or hiking boots.
ACCESSIBILITY | Accommodations will be made for all interested attendees. Please call 415-561-4994 to request alternate accommodations.
QUESTIONS | For more information or questions, please call 415-561-4994.

 

 

National Park Service Trees Meet Chainsaws in Montara

The National Park Service is cutting down trees in Montara, south of San Francisco. San Francisco Forest Alliance opposes this action. We’re disappointed. In this era of global warming, every tree counts. Instead of destroying trees, they should be planting them. Instead, they appear to have succumbed to the same “native” vs “non-native” xenophobic approach to plants that we’re battling in the Bay Area.

This article, with the accompanying pictures is from one of our supporters, and is used with permission.

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE CHAINSAWS KILLING PENINSULA TREE

by D. Emanuel

Here we go again. This time it’s the National Park Service destroying trees in the Bay Area. They just cut down perfectly healthy Monterey cypress and pines – some 100 years old — at Rancho Corral de Tierra, which is located at the tip of Half Moon Bay. If you’ve ever hiked or ridden a horse or bike at Rancho you know there are few trees that provide shady resting spots along popular trails.

These trail-side trees are isolated and one in particular, on the Farallone trail, has been an iconic stop, where hikers take a break to enjoy scenery, grab a drink of water, and shoot the breeze. It’s been a favorite among residents of Montara, many of whom walk outdoors just steps from home as part of their daily routine. No more. Park Service chainsaw crews leveled the tree last week.

By the end of next week the Park Service will be on track to kill 40 trees because they categorize them as non-native. It doesn’t seem to matter that their birthplace is only 100 miles down the road in Monterey. Apparently that’s not local enough.

COASTSIDE RESIDENTS BLINDSIDED

The Park Service gave no warning and did not engage the community for input at Rancho. They are so strident in carrying out a preferred landscape ideology that a handful of favorite trees could not remain.

Rancho is the newest land added to the 80,000-acre Golden Gate National Recreation Area. The Park Service acquired it in 2011. You may remember that just one month after taking over as land manager a Park Service ranger used her taser gun to shoot a 50-year-old man in the back after he gave a false name. The ranger had stopped him for walking one of his two small terriers off-leash. He won a $50,000 judgment against the Park Service for unreasonable use of force.

Now the Park Service is now using unreasonable force against trees under the guise of biodiversity. They claim it will save a rare flower, Hickman’s potentilla, against an invading force  even though the trees have remained far apart for years, showing no sign of taking over the landscape.

The fact that the flower has peacefully co-existed with the trees for decades doesn’t matter to the Park Service. The project is part of a multi-million dollar grasslands restoration and replanting program bankrolled by the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy.

The Park Service did not conduct an environmental assessment to justify the dramatic changes being made to the landscape and it’s refusing to disclose how much glyphosate is being sprayed.  Glyphosate, better known by the Monsanto trade name Roundup, has been declared a probable human carcinogen. California, which in July declared glyphosate to be a carcinogen, is considering requiring cancer warnings on Roundup brand labels.

The community is shocked and angry. You should be too. California lost 100 million trees due to the recent four-year drought. We can’t afford to be killing trees. Yet that’s exactly what the Park Service is doing at Rancho Corral de Tierra.

UPDATE:

Here’s a statement from GGNRA received today:

“NPS is pausing tree removal work at Rancho and is planning to offer an additional public hike in the coming weeks to discuss our planning process and the overall recovery plan for the Rancho grasslands and Hickman’s potentilla. We plan to send out an announcement to our Rancho mailing list once this date is set.”

This is a pause – not a promise to stop the cutting. We will stay in touch with you all as we move through this process to keep our voices heard.

Please enjoy the moment – your voices and help from Congresswoman Jackie Speier’s office were very important to get this temporary pause – thank you!

Native Coyote and Non-Native Kangaroo Apples

In these times of so much bad news, we republish here a delightful post from the CoyoteYipps blog of wildlife photographer and coyote advocate Janet Kessler (with permission).

KANGAROO APPLE OR POROPORO

I watched a coyote forage in one of these bushes. When the coyote left, we went up to examine the berries which I had never seen before. I took a tiny taste, and my friend gulped down a couple to help us determine what they were: the flavor was bitter with a tad of sweet.

When I got home, I couldn’t find the plant on the internet, so I turned to my Nextdoor site and posed the question there. They indeed came up with what it was: Kangaroo apple, as it’s called in Australia, or poroporo, as it is called in New Zealand are native to those areas, but have been naturalized into the Bay Area and can be found throughout San Francisco. AND, we should not have eaten them as they are poisonous — they belong to the nightshade family! Yikes!

Once I had the name of the plant, I looked up more about it. Interestingly, it’s flowers are hermaphroditic (having both male and female organs). They are blue-violet or white in color, and a little over an inch in size. Flowers are followed by berries of about the same size. The berries, it turns out, are poisonous only while green — they become edible once they turn orange.  Whew!

The next day I went back to see if the coyote would appear again: I wasn’t sure it was eating the fruit or possibly foraging for snails or slugs on the plant. I wondered why a coyote might eat toxic material. As I watched, I saw that the coyote eating only the orange colored fruit! Maybe the green ones were unsavory and bitter as well as toxic? Smart coyote!

One argument we often hear is that “native plants” are better as habitat. It’s very seldom true. Most animals, birds, and insects adapt to available resources – and that includes, often, non-native plants. The example above is one; another is the dramatic anise swallowtail butterfly that depends on non-native fennel. San Francisco Forest Alliance stands for Inclusive Environmentalism,  opposing xenophobia and welcoming the species that will save our changing world.